IEEE Releases New 1584 Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations

According to the IEEE Standards Association, approximately 2,000 workers are admitted to burn centers each year for extended injury treatment caused by arc flash incidents.

With this in mind, the IEEE Standards Association announced last month the publication and immediate availability of "IEEE 1584-2018 - IEEE Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations." This new technical standard is sponsored by the IEEE Industry Applications Society, Petroleum & Chemicals Industry (IAS/PCI).

The standard is the result of extensive research and laboratory testing conducted by the Arc Flash Research Project, which is an ongoing collaboration between IEEE and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), with the mission of providing improved models and an analytical process to enable calculation of predicted incident thermal energy and the arc-flash boundary.

"Our extensive, collaborative work with the NFPA has resulted in an IEEE standard that dramatically improves the prediction of hazards associated with arcing faults and accompanying arc blasts," said Konstantinos Karachalios, managing director of the IEEE Standards Association. "Contractors and facility owners will benefit from IEEE 1584 by being able to more thoroughly analyze power systems to calculate the incident energy to which employees could be exposed during operations and maintenance work, allowing them to provide appropriate protection for employees in accordance with the requirements of applicable electrical workplace safety standards."

IEEE 1584 2018 includes processes that cover the collection of field data, consideration of power system operating scenarios, and calculation parameters. Applications include electrical equipment and conductors for three-phase alternating current voltages from 208 volts to 15 kilovolts.

"It has been sixteen years since the first edition of the IEEE 1584 standard was published in 2002," said Jim Phillips, vice chair of the IEEE 1584 Arc Flash Working Group, international chair of IEC TC78 Live Working, and arc flash safety columnist for ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR magazine. "The new 2018 edition of this standard takes arc flash studies to the next level."

The original model was based on arc flash test using only a few enclosure sizes with the electrodes in a vertical configuration.

"Subsequent research and testing for the 2018 edition have led to the inclusion of more enclosure sizes, an enclosure size correction factor, and additional electrode configurations, as well as many other enhancements to enable more detailed modeling," Phillips said.

"The update to IEEE 1584 has empowered thousands of engineers conducting arc-flash hazard calculations," said Daleep Mohla, chair, IEEE 1584 Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations Working Group. "These efforts, conducted in partnership with the NFPA, have armed all stakeholders involved in arc-flash hazards to better protect employees and contractors in the working environment." 

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See the original full article at: https://www.ecmag.com/section/codes-standards/ieee-releases-new-1584-arc-flash-hazard-calculations

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12 things you can do to strengthen your company’s Business Continuity Plan

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Power Companies Facing Labor Shortage and Skills Gap

 Power companies are facing a difficult task balancing the need to address talent shortages with adapting to the changing skills needs resulting from digitalization, according to the third annual Global Energy Talent Index (GETI). The world's largest energy recruitment and employment trends report was recently released by Airswift, the global workforce solutions provider for the energy, process and infrastructure sectors, and Energy Jobline, a job site for the energy and engineering industries.

Airswift and Energy Jobline surveyed more than 17,000 energy professionals and hiring managers in 162 countries across five industry sub-sectors: oil and gas, renewables, power, nuclear and petrochemicals. According to the report, 48 percent of power professionals are concerned about an impending talent emergency, with 32 percent believing the crisis to have already hit the sector and 38 percent reporting that their company had been affected by skills shortages.

The problem is most profound in engineering, with 62 percent of respondents citing that as the discipline most affected by talent shortages, with project leadership a distant second on 22 percent. When it comes to specific skills gaps, problem-solving (29 percent), leadership (19 percent) and process management (13 percent) lead the way.

Janette Marx, chief executive officer at Airswift, says the report found that the biggest concern of the energy workforce is the skills gap.

"The need for more engineers points to an industry concerned with meeting its immediate needs, but the skills respondents identified are exactly those you need to successfully manage change – something firms will be doing a lot of as they adapt to automation," Marx says. It looks as though the power sector has one eye on the present and one firmly on its digital future."

In addition to providing much-needed insights into the skills gap, GETI also provides data about salary and mobility. Key findings within power include:

      • Remuneration is on the up. Fifty-seven percent of non-hiring professionals report an increase in pay over the past 12 months, with 29 percent citing a raise of more than five percent
      • Seventy-four percent of non-hiring professionals anticipate further pay raises in 2019 – with 44 percent expecting remuneration to rise by more than five percent.
      • Ninety percent of professionals would consider relocating to another region for their job, with career progression opportunities the number one factor attracting talent to a region.
      • Renewables provides the biggest source of competition for talent, with 47 percent of those open to switching sectors attracted to the industry, followed by oil and gas at 40 percent.

Hannah Peet, managing director at Energy Jobline, says: "Competition between sectors remains as fierce as ever, but power businesses are set up very well for success. The sector has done a fantastic job of offering stability, security and steadily-increasing remuneration. Furthermore, hiring managers understand what those skill shortages are and know where to go to alleviate them."

Peet says the next step is to take action.

"Graduate training schemes and increased use of apprenticeships will help, but the power sector needs to do a better job of marketing itself to young, digitally-inclined talent. Otherwise, transformations like the smart grid can't fulfill their full potential," Peet says.

Download the report for more information.
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In 2019, IIoT and the Industrial Edge Benefits Will Rely on Predictable Power

Industrial physical infrastructure and the methods for managing industrial assets are transforming before our very eyes. According to IHS Markit, the volume of Cloud/Edge analytics that support manufacturing operations are set to double by 2020 and, by 2030, the installed base of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is projected to exceed 120 billion. 

Industrial Edge Applications

In 2019, technologies such as artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and video analytics will expand their influence and will help to drive these transformations as more and more "industrial edge" applications take root (Industrial Edge enriches industrial automation through live and constantly available data and analytics, to drive operations more efficiently and effectively).

As these technologies proliferate, their business value will manifest itself in multiple ways:

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

AI combines a set of defined rules, intelligence and information. For example, when data is coming from different sources, AI can flag information that bucks the trend as a risk or as an opportunity for savings. These tools analyze the data on a continuous basis and come up with recommended decisions or actions based on the data. The more an AI algorithm is asked to process, the more it learns and the more accurate it becomes because of the way the algorithms are organized. Such algorithms help to make predictive maintenance of industry assets possible, thus radically reducing equipment support costs while boosting production uptime.

Augmented Reality (AR)

New ways to both maintain physical assets and to train new employees are just two examples of how AR is helping to open new doors to improved efficiency. Newcomers to the industry, for example, will require very little training as visualization software combined with real-time data are tightly integrated. Such digital tools make it easy to maintain and save domain expertise (i.e., tribal knowledge of experienced employees) by capturing the ways that experienced employees resolve issues so that users in the future have access to this brain power, even after the physical people have left.

Video Analytics

Integrated video analytics (IVA) are impacting a broad set of industrial edge applications across a wide variety of environments including factories. In the case of manufacturing, video analytics applications are helping to increase throughput, reduce energy consumption, and improve overall product quality. The great enablers of these kinds of benefits, high definition video cameras, are providing information in such detail, that real-time decision-making is greatly enabled. The software supporting such applications drives hardware requirements that then feed the specifications for a micro data center which bundles IT server processing power and storage with power, cooling, rack, uninterruptible power supply (UPS), and remote monitoring so that the integrated video analytics applications can run in a reliable, predictable and safe manner.

Power Protection that Backs Up the Industrial IoT

The one common element that will allow these technologies to deliver the expected ROI across the various industrial application areas is a power protection infrastructure that supports 24×7 availability. Since all compute power is fueled by electricity, the stability of the power infrastructure that generates, transmits and distributes that electricity has a direct impact on business continuity. As even the simplest of devices becomes equipped with microprocessors, the growth in device intelligence raises demand for clean power and electrical infrastructure capable of supporting such increased connectivity. In connected environments, where real-time decisions will become the norm, failure of systems is not an option.

IIoT and industrial edge frameworks must account for the power systems that enable uptime in a cyber-secure manner. To learn more about how power systems support and help to harden new generation IIoT solutions, visit Schneider Electric's Industrial Business Continuity site. 

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See the original full article at: https://blog.schneider-electric.com/power-management-metering-monitoring-power-quality/2019/01/30/2019-iiot-and-the-industrial-edge-benefits-will-rely-on-predictable-power/

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Why the Need for PQ Analysis is on the Rise

A useful tool at all life cycle stages, making PQ monitoring a part of an electrical distribution system's E3MP is critical.  

As electrical distribution systems continue to improve with the rapidly evolving technological advances, the benefits of power quality measurements and associated analysis continue to increase. One clear example is the expanding use of microprocessor-based protective relaying and metering. Electric utility power providers are using smart devices in systems to move toward a peak usage billing structure and monitor large commercial/industrial customers that are potentially inducing power factor issues into the electric utility's distribution system.

With the rise in solid-state circuits, end-use equipment is becoming more sensitive to disturbances such as voltage fluctuations, spikes or swells, voltage imbalances, harmonic distortions, or even momentary interruptions. These disturbances can arise from either the electric utility system or within the user facilities. Also, with the incorporation of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), more and more electrical equipment is interconnected with networks and industrial processes. Thankfully, the increased concern for power quality has resulted in significant advances in monitoring equipment that is capable of characterizing power disturbances and power quality variations.

An electrical distribution system's purpose is to provide the required power parameters to support the proper operation of the loads. When an end device is not working properly, the first suspect is typically a power quality issue. Whether the root cause is in the distribution system or in the end device, an effective power quality analysis can lead to the appropriate corrective action to restore the device to normal operation. The bottom line is, when any electrical system fails to meet its purpose, it's time to investigate the problem, find the root cause, and initiate corrective action.

Power quality monitoring and analysis is a useful tool at all life cycle stages as part of an electrical distribution system's effective electrical equipment maintenance program (E3MP). Whether it's used for troubleshooting purposes, to obtain baseline data, or measuring and analyzing electrical system parameters, power quality analysis is a vital tool for maintaining a healthy electrical distribution system. Essentially, power quality monitoring is a process for collecting data that can be used for a variety of applications, depending on the current circumstances.

However, power quality analysis results are only as effective as the data collected for the analysis. A well thought out and planned effort is critical prior to investing time and money into the process. For troubleshooting discrete equipment issues, a plan may be as simple as determining where the incoming power connections can be easily accessed, what level of personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed to create an electrically safe work condition for metering connections, what parameters are needed to be monitored, and how long the device should be monitored for data collection.

Executing a permanently installed power monitoring capability to improve long-term system reliability requires more detailed planning to maximize effectiveness with available resources. An E3MP includes a criticality analysis on the systems and associated electrical assets. This criticality analysis, when properly performed, provides an objective list of all the electrical assets and how important they are to the facility operational mission priorities. This allows the opportunity to direct the appropriate resources toward the most critical equipment, which should, in turn, have a positive impact on the overall reliability of the system. For the most critical electrical assets, the appropriate level of condition-based maintenance may include permanently installed online power quality monitoring.

Another location to consider for permanent monitoring capabilities is as close as practical to the point of service. This will provide a baseline of the quality of the power that is coming in to the system from the electric utility provider. However, planning for this connection needs to include a risk analysis due to the high potential for large fault currents and high arc flash incident energy levels. Once installed at the point of service, this singular location can be quite useful in determining the location of power disturbances. If the facility can tolerate momentary power interruptions, individual circuits can be isolated to detect which circuit has the disturbance on it. Then, the same isolating process can continue through the distribution system of that circuit until the device causing the disturbance is identified. Obviously, more monitoring devices installed on the system will minimize the level of interruption needed during troubleshooting by allowing detection of the disturbance closer to the cause.

While the permanent installation of power monitoring devices is the recommended best practice, the same analysis can be performed using temporarily installed power quality meters on a routine basis or as needed to find the source of a problem. This can be more time-consuming due to the need to connect and disconnect a meter or multiple meters for various lengths of time to obtain enough information to meet the objective of the analysis. Although using power quality meters to troubleshoot discrete problems can be straightforward, trending the system health over time needs to be very strategic to be effective. The process for trending system health should be well planned and documented to acquire data that can be trended with prior analysis efforts to detect any developing issues.

Power quality monitoring and analysis is a useful tool at all life cycle stages and should be part of an electrical distribution system's E3MP. Abnormalities on an electrical system often impact power quality, so monitoring a distribution system's power quality can be an effective method in trending its overall health, reducing troubleshooting time after fault detection and aiding in condition-based maintenance decisions. 

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See the original full article at: https://www.ecmweb.com/power-quality-reliability/why-need-pq-analysis-rise

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