Apr
16

How does your state rank in Electrical Safety

Mike Holt's State Rating of the Electrical Industry - 2018

Map Safest States2018

As part of our ongoing focus on electrical safety, we annually update our report that assigns a grade to US States for electrical standards that are mandated state-wide.

State-wide mandates considered.

The following criteria are all required at the state level for points to be assigned for this report:

  • The NEC® edition adopted (current = 2017 NEC issued on 8/4/2016)
  • Licensing and/or certification required for Apprentice, Journeyman, Master/Contractor, Inspector, and Engineer licenses
  • Continuing Education (CEU or PDH) required for license renewal

What's NOT included in our report.

  • County and Municipality adoptions. We recognize that there are many local adoptions, and that in many cases county and municipalities adopt the most recent building and electrical codes ahead of their State. The scope of anything other than state-wide mandated requirements is beyond this report.
  • Enforcement or effectiveness. We are unaware of a way to track or correlate enforcement as it relates to rates of incidents or accidents.

Congratulations!

  • The following states have an A+ rating: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maine, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming.
  • We applaud all those states, counties and local municipalities that continue to set high standards in electrical safety.

The Chart below shows the rankings.

If there is a green up arrow next to the state name, it indicates an improvement in grade over the last 5 years from 2014 to 2018; a down red arrow indicates a decline.

For history and details of how grades are calculated, click here.

Note: All 12 points are required for an A+ grade.

STATE GRADE 2014 GRADE 2015 GRADE 2016 GRADE 2017 GRADE 2018
ALABAMA C+ B- C+ C+ B
ALASKA A A A A A
ARIZONA F F F F F
ARKANSAS A+ A+ A+ A A+
CALIFORNIA B+ B+ B+ B+ B+
COLORADO A+ A+ A+ A A+
CONNECTICUT B+ B+ B+ B+ B+
D.C. C+ C+ C+ C C
DELAWARE A- A- A- A A
FLORIDA B- B B B- B
GEORGIA B- B- B- C+ B-
HAWAII C+ C+ C C- C+
IDAHO A A A A- A
ILLINOIS D D D F F
INDIANA D+ D+ D+ D D
IOWA A A+ A+ A A+
KANSAS F F F F F
KENTUCKY A A A A- A-
LOUISIANA C+ C+ C+ C C+
MAINE A+ A+ A+ A A+
MARYLAND C C C+ C C
MASSACHUSETTS A- A- A- A- A-
MICHIGAN A A+ A+ A A
MINNESOTA A A A A- A
MISSISSIPPI D D D F F
MISSOURI F F F F F
MONTANA A A A A- A-
NEBRASKA A A A A- A
NEVADA D D D F F
NEW HAMPSHIRE A- A- A- B+ A-
NEW JERSEY A- A- A- A- A-
NEW MEXICO A- A- A- B+ A-
NEW YORK D+ D+ D+ C- C+
NORTH CAROLINA B B B B B
NORTH DAKOTA A+ A+ A+ A A+
OHIO B B+ B+ B- B
OKLAHOMA A A A A- A-
OREGON A A A A- A
PENNSYLVANIA C C C C- C-
RHODE ISLAND A- A- A- B+ B+
SOUTH CAROLINA B- B- B- B- B-
SOUTH DAKOTA A+ A+ A+ A A+
TENNESSEE B- B- C+ C C
TEXAS A- A- A- B+ A-
UTAH A A A A A
VERMONT A- A- A- B+ A-
VIRGINIA A- A- A- B+ B+
WASHINGTON A A A A- A
WEST VIRGINIA B B B B B
WISCONSIN A- A- A- B+ B+
WYOMING A+ A+ A+ A A+

 

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See the origial article at: https://www.mikeholt.com//newsletters.php?action=display&letterID=1875

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Apr
09

Updating Legacy Power Systems

Why you need to deploy the newest solutions for greater reliability in security and access control specifications

It is exciting times for physical security today. Technology has advanced at breakneck speeds, quite significant for an industry that seemed to stand still for decades. Now, with networked and Internet Protocol (IP) products in video surveillance and access control, edge intelligence and connected data coming from a host of integrated devices and sensors, there’s a whole new proving ground emerging for power in these types of security solutions.

Consumers and end-users expect to connect to their systems at any time, from anywhere. End users need their solutions up and running 24/7, especially in critical infrastructure or government security applications. Everything is interconnected and talking to each other— and power is the heartbeat of the integrated solution.

Power systems have undergone a substantial transformation in performance and design, resulting in better efficiency, reliability and stability. Now, it too has joined the growing fray of networkconnected products—with new remote monitoring and management capabilities yielding a more robust power and security system specification.

History of Power

The basic design of power systems has changed dramatically during the last several decades. In the 70s, power systems used linear regulation, an older technology that was inherently inefficient. With linear systems, a large, step-down transformer was required and the regulator operates by “burning off” extra voltage as heat. Heat generation, an enemy of electronics which degrades performance over time, is much greater in linear power supplies. Efficiency levels for linear power supplies were typically in the 65 percent range and generally limited to a single, preconfigured output voltage dependent on the input transformer. Linear power supplies are generally being phased out, driven also by state and federal regulations, in favor of offline switching supplies (OLS).

OLS is a widely used technology capable of operating with a cleaner power output than linear. It offers less noise and ripple as opposed to linear, especially during high-power operation. An OLS power system operates on the same principles as a low-voltage switching mode power supply, but eliminates the need for a step-down transformer, improving efficiency while reducing weight and heat output. OLS is able to achieve nearly 90 percent efficiency and far lower operating temperatures than either linear or switching mode, with the result being greater long-term product reliability.

When power supplies began to move to OLS the higher efficiency presented a greater feature set and ultimately it began its transition from dumb hardware to an integral part of a network-connected system.

The efficiency, feature sets and available diagnostics of power solutions will only improve with the future generation of products. Devices will continue to integrate—with the ability of hardware and software to communicate more wholly through protocols such as Physical Logical Access Interoperability (PLAI) profile and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)—as well as foster easier use and user transparency.

The power supply is now a complete solution, offering single and dual voltage, power distribution, lock and output control, remote test capability, remote diagnostics and remote reporting capabilities.

Big Picture: Access Control, PoE and Wireless

Power also plays a significant role in many emerging trends in access control. There’s quite a large infrastructure of legacy access control solutions still operating in the industry today, but they are being migrated to integrated open solutions. In addition, the rise of wireless locking products, power over Ethernet connectivity and edge intelligence in access control is also dictating the need for more robust power solutions to keep systems up and running competently.

With an IP edge-based solution, each door operates independently of other openings in the system. Edge access control systems require networked power solutions that can provide predictive capabilities, remote monitoring and maintenance, so integrators and users can maintain them proactively.

Networked access control systems are an integral part of security at the protected premises. And wouldn’t it be great if an end-user knew, ahead of time, of impending lock failure or battery fatigue— offering the ability to replace components in a timely manner and maintain system uptime? That’s what’s possible today with proactive power system management from networked components. In addition, reliable and predictable power systems provide greater efficiencies and yield substantial cost savings for customers and integrators.

Modern power systems provide these capabilities:

  • The ability to access real-time data and detect historical trends, with 100 percent visibility into the system, globally or locally, or to each connected device.
  • The ability to identify and prevent potential power problems to critical security systems before they fail.
  • Powerful analytics that deliver information in a highly intuitive form that helps security integrators manage systems to a healthy, optimal performance.
  • An integrated solution that combines access control hardware with intelligent power networking capabilities in a single enclosure to reduce installation time and yield easy standardization across enterprise specifications and from installation to installation.
  • Proactive real-time reporting and the continual delivery of mission critical information on the overall system health and viability, leading to less downtime or failure.

Networked enterprise or multi-tenant sites can effectively use power solutions to pinpoint potential connectivity and device issues with proactive, intelligent analytics. At the ready for integrators and end users are many predictive tools to automatically manage power solutions and receive alerts in advance of issues so preventative actions and response can be administered through managed services. These managed services could include: remote battery management and testing; remote device monitoring and restart/power cycle functionality; proactive detection and assessment of problems; and system solution health and connectivity reports generated on demand or at any designed schedule or interval.

What once was considered a dumb device now has attained mission critical stature for integrated solutions at the protected premises. Power is knowledgeable, connected and intelligent, culling constant realtime information on the status and operational history of systems installations.

P3 strives to bring you quality relevant industry related news.

See the origial article at: https://securitytoday.com/Articles/2018/03/01/Updating-Legacy-Power-Systems.aspx?Page=3

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Apr
02

Eaton’s Blackout Tracker Annual Report Shows 36.7 Million People affected by more than 3,500 power outages in 2017

Underscoring the critical need for disaster recovery planning for businesses across the United States, power management company Eaton today announced the release of its Blackout Tracker Annual Report for 2017. This year’s report found that in 2017 nearly 27 million people were affected by 3,526 blackouts lasting an average of 81 minutes per power outage. While California topped the list of states with the most interruptions for the ninth consecutive year, power failures impacted individuals and businesses in all 50 states.

“The Blackout Tracker Annual Report shows the scope and severity of power outages across the country, leading to widespread damage and significant consequences for businesses,” said Mike DeCamp, senior marketing communications manager, Power Quality Division, Eaton. “With the number of people affected by pervasive electrical power outages, surges and spikes continuing to rise each year, it’s more critical than ever to develop a disaster recovery plan with reliable power protection to avoid detrimental downtime.”

Blackout Tracker Annual Report data is based on a full year of reported power outages across the U.S. and is organized into three sections: an introduction to power outages and the impact of downtime, an overview of national power outage data, and power outage data by state. Eaton’s Blackout Tracker report features top outage lists, including the most significant reported outages, largest data center outages and the most unusual causes for outages.

Among the most unusual causes of power outages in 2017:

Bradford, Illinois: On June 11, a tree branch, rotted from beehives and honeycombs inside, broke off and landed on power lines. Crews had to find a way to remove the state-protected insects without harming them, and were forced to wait for the arrival of state agency employees.
Grand Haven Township, Michigan: On Sept. 19, a sailboat’s mast hit an overhead wire in a swampy area on the Lost Channel, catching fire and resulting in a 75-minute blackout.
Felton, Delaware: On Dec. 12, a tractor-trailer truck carrying a load of chickens cut electricity to area residents and snarled traffic after the flock escaped.


The costs associated with power failures have continued to rise. Although power failures are commonly due to weather and unforeseen events, uninterruptible power systems (UPSs), generators and power management software solutions are designed to deliver reliable power during outages so data centers stay up-and-running.

Eaton has tracked power outage information since Feb. 16, 2008. Data for the report is taken from broadcast news reports, newspapers, websites (including those of newspapers and TV stations) and personal accounts.

To download the entire report and track power outages across the U.S., visit switchon.eaton.com/blackout-tracker

P3 strives to bring you quality relevant industry related news.

See the origial article at:  http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/OurCompany/NewsEvents/NewsReleases/PCT_3336328

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Mar
26

Knowledge is power management when it comes to standards

Differing IEC, ANSI requirements can impact compliance.

Sherry Rollins, Schneider Electric   03/22/2018

According to the International Energy Agency's New Policies Scenario, global energy needs are expected to expand by 30% by 2040. This is the equivalent of adding another China and India to today's global demand. Of this, electricity will constitute 40% of energy consumption worldwide by 2040. At the same time, electricity prices are increasing. Per the U.S. Energy Information Administration, in the U.S. alone, the average retail price of electricity has risen about 1.5% per year between 2006 and 2016.

Because of this, there is an increasing worldwide demand for companies to leverage their global footprint more efficiently, improve processes, and reduce bottom lines. This is easier said than done. In the complex electrical engineering industry, systems standardization can lower costs and risk at the regional level, but create complications globally: each country has its own rules, regulations, and standards. As the use of equipment developed in different countries and manufactured by different vendors continues, it is critical to bridge the gap between differing standards to properly design and coordinate an electrical system.

Double standards

There are two major standards bodies: the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which is the prevailing standards body in North America and some select other regions, and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which is used in much of the rest of the world. Each takes a different approach to developing and approving standards. These different tactics in the development stages drastically alter the design and testing of equipment. For instance, as a regional standard, ANSI follows the criteria for design, installation, and performance in alignment with the legal and liability environment in North America. As such, ANSI standards are tied closely in with building and safety codes, allowing for certain oversight and inspection to take place.

Since IEC standards are applicable worldwide, across many countries where local practices, codes, and legal environments vary drastically. The standards are performance rather than safety-based. There are, however, some regions that follow more strict requirements compared to the IEC standards, such as the United Kingdom.

The history

IEC was developed in June of 1906 as a global standards body for the world's electrotechnical industries, including government, academia, end-users, and more. The standards were an answer to early 20th century electrical engineers' needs for closer collaboration, embracing terminology, testing, safety, and internationally-agreed specifications. While the 19th century had been the era of electrotechnical innovation, the emphasis was now on consolidation and standardization. There was concern in the 20th century for electrical units and standards. More than a decade later, ANSI and the U.S. voluntary standards took shape in the form of a group meeting. Five organizations, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, and the American Society for Testing Materials joined together to establish an impartial national body to coordinate standards development. The U.S. Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce were invited to weigh in and join as founders. ANSI was originally named the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC).

Initially, the AESC identified safety standards for the places people were spending most of their time. Many standards were aimed at preventing hazards in the household or workplace. The standards later expanded to include industry, government, and other sectors. With the expansion of the programs, ANSI's identity also had grown and needed a new name. ANSI adopted its present name in 1969.

Usage: design vs. performance

When designing and specifying equipment, understanding the differences across these standards and within each region is critical, and there are several points to consider:

  • If applying equipment outside of its typical region-for instance, installing foreign-manufactured infrastructure within a U.S. building (a practice becoming increasingly common)-remember that the product may have been designed by different standards (unless it was specifically created for the U.S. market by an overseas vendor). As such, it may need to be substituted once you determine how it fits into the region you are in.
  • Within the ANSI, as a design-based standard, most manufacturers' equipment will vary little from one another. This includes the specified thickness of sheet metal, paint color, barriers, and other features to ensure consistency.
  • On the other hand, IEC-standardized equipment must meet the same testing and performance requirements-no matter the design. For instance, the standard may require a specific degree of compartmentalization, but how this is achieved may vary by product or manufacturer. This means there is more freedom for those abiding by IEC standards in being innovative and creative in their design of equipment.
  • Electrical testing and ratings between IEC and ANSI are not necessarily the same or equivalent, and equipment may not pass respective tests. This is the case with temperature rise testing and enclosure ratings.

The key for global companies is to acknowledge and educate themselves on these standards to ensure equipment and systems comply. Understanding that each product may be slightly modified or have different available ratings based on the requirements and applicable standards for each region in which it is being applied is critical.

With global energy consumption skyrocketing, and companies fighting to keep up while keeping their bottom line down, it is more important than ever to have fully compliant equipment and systems. A full grasp on standards will provide knowledge and offer peace of mind.

P3 strives to bring you quality relevant industry related news.

See the origial article at:  https://www.controleng.com/single-article/knowledge-is-power-management-when-it-comes-to-standards/6e9faac6eac17d8d50c346c00b0f4c52.html

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Mar
19

NEMA White Paper Evaluates Surge Susceptibility of Electrical Components

The technical committee on low voltage surge protective devices tested a variety of devices against nine different surge wave forms.

The effects of voltage surges on electrical and electronic equipment are difficult to characterize in a way that relates to real-world working conditions, but questions such as, ‘How many surges does it take to damage my equipment’ or ‘how much longer will my equipment last with and without surge protection?’ arise with almost every application. Although there are testing standards in place, those tests normally are conducted under standard lab conditions and don’t address the variable effects of temperature, power quality and other important factors.

The Low Voltage Surge Protective Devices technical committee at the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), Rosslyn, VA, was asked to look at the issue and provide an overview of electrical and electronic equipment surge susceptibility. This week the committee released a report on its findings.

The new white paper, “NEMA VSP 1-2017 Susceptibility of Electrical and Electronic Components to Surge Damage,” looks at the surge effects of several common pieces of electrical equipment including incandescent, fluorescent and LED lamps, control transformers, variable frequency drives and uninterruptable power supplies. The devices were tested against nine different surge wave forms at certified testing laboratories in a setting recreating a real-world surge environment. The paper presents a table showing the number of surges of a particular type each device withstood before failure.

“This white paper helps the electrical community—engineers, consumers, and technicians— understand the various transient conditions to which electrical and electronic equipment may be subjected. The intent is to create awareness and offer guidance based on real-world testing on protection that will be helpful to preventing problems with products,” said James Moellmann, director of Standards/Application Engineering at MVC–Maxivolt, and chairman of the NEMA 05VS, Low Voltage Surge Protective Devices, Technical Committee.

Here's the report (PDF): Susceptibility of Electrical and Electronic Components to Surge Damage

 

P3 strives to bring you quality relevant industry related news.

See the origial article at:  http://www.ecmweb.com/power-quality-reliability/nema-white-paper-evaluates-surge-susceptibility-electrical-components?NL=ECM-06&Issue=ECM-06_20180313_ECM-06_186&sfvc4enews=42&cl=article_1&utm_rid=CPG04000000918978&utm_campaign=18970&utm_medium=email&elq2=f26d478435784c05bdb9388f024d1d17

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